Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40waterless printing | The waterless process uses the lithographic system with the elimination of the fountain solution, or dampening system. Instead of conventional metal, paper or plastic printing plates, this process uses a multilayered silicone-covered plate, and special ink is required for waterless printing. This process can provide high quality and efficiency with low dot gain for enhanced detail, better color saturation and faster make-readies. In the absence of a dampening system, waterless printing requires temperature controls for the ink rollers and more frequent cleaning of the blankets. The plate chemistry is solvent based and requires special handling, and the inks have a higher VOC content than the ones used in conventional lithography. digital printing | Digital printing can be accomplished through several different technologies that include ink jet (solvent-based, water-based, latex or UV cured), dry toner or electroink. Digital printing is often referred to as “print on demand.” From an environmental perspective, each technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. Because all graphic content is in electronic form from creation through printing, the chemicals associated with plate making are eliminated, as is most make-ready waste. The digital process is flexible, allowing for small-quantity, on-demand print runs that reduce inflated inventories and ultimately reduce stockpiles of obsolete printed materials. The environmental impacts will vary based on the process being used. Some digital technologies will emit VOCs, while others emit almost none. From a recyclability perspective, some are completely recyclable, while others are very difficult and the resulting pulps do not produce good-quality recycled paper. coatings | Overprint coatings such as conventional varnish, water-based and UV-cured coatings are used to protect the printed work and may be used as design elements (using gloss or tinted coating—most often on coated stocks). Varnishes are printing inks without pigments and contain the same ink oil as inks do and can emit VOCs. Aqueous coatings are a mix of polymers and water, emit VOCs, do not require solvents for cleanup and can be recycled and repulped. As with inks, the less coating that is applied (with lower VOCs) to the sheet the less impact your project has on the environment. uv inks and coatings | Touted for their beauty and durability, UV formulations are printed as a paste/ liquid and immediately change to a solid film when exposed to ultraviolet light energy, releasing very low levels of VOCs into the air. This process involves special equipment such as UV lamps consuming energy, reflectors to intensify the light and cooling systems for the lamps, as well as special safety equipment and precautions for the press crews. This is an energy-intensive process. Although recyclability of UV-printed materials has been questioned, a study by the Beloit Corporation of Wisconsin has proven that paper printed with UV ink and coatings can be repulped, de-inked and recycled.11 Generally, UV cured inks and coatings require more aggressive or higher-VOC-containing cleaning solvents. other printing considerations | Fountain solutions, used ink, emissions, chemistry and solvents used in the cleaning process can all have an impact on the environment. Eco-conscious printers will have a comprehensive program for addressing these aspects of their operations. Printing | 22